International Journal of Natural Medicine and Health Sciences https://journals.iub.edu.pk/index.php/ijnms <p>International Journal of Natural Medicine and Health Sciences is a peer-reviewed journal that aims to publish manuscripts related to the current trends in research and practices of&nbsp;<strong>natural medicine</strong>. Our objective is to strengthen the research and educational base of&nbsp;natural medicine in the healthcare system.<br> International Journal of Natural Medicine and Health Sciences does not advocate for anyone's system or method, but rather encourages the examination and proper application of all successful researches in natural medicine and health sciences. Each issue covers a wide range of disciplined inquiry approaches, ranging from case studies to original scientific research in health sciences. The editors advocate for licensed health care practitioners to integrate evidence-based emerging treatments with traditional medical practices in a way that supports a holistic approach to health care that is focused on wellness, prevention, and healing. International Journal of Natural Medicine and Health Sciences aspires to educate all licensed health care practitioners about developments in fields other than their own, as well as to foster ongoing debate about the scientific, clinical, historical, legal, political, and cultural issues that affect all aspects of health care.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> University College of Conventional Method, Faculty of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan en-US International Journal of Natural Medicine and Health Sciences 2790-2463 <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Copyright (c) 2021, <span style="text-decoration: underline;">International Journal of Natural Medicine and Health Sciences</span> licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.</span></p> Integration of Homeopathic System of Medicine into Main Health Stream of Pakistan https://journals.iub.edu.pk/index.php/ijnms/article/view/887 <p>Editorial</p> Hafiz Muhammad Asif Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Natural Medicine and Health Sciences http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 1 2 Assessment of Knowledge and Utilization of Maternal and Neonatal Health services in Public Hospitals of district Dera Ghazi Khan https://journals.iub.edu.pk/index.php/ijnms/article/view/847 <p><strong>Abstract: </strong>Background: Poor utilization of healthcare services during pregnancy, child delivery, and postpartum is a significant cause of maternal and child mortality. Antenatal and postnatal care is the most effective intervention for maternal and infant mortality and morbidity, especially in areas where women's general health is poor. Objectives: This study was conducted to find out the mother's knowledge about maternal and neonatal services to determine the utilization of maternal and neonatal services in public hospitals of District Dera Ghazi Khan. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a public hospital in Dera Ghazi Khan. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data about the knowledge and utilization of antenatal care services among pregnant women. Results:The findings of the present study showed that 58.4% of respondents have good knowledge of antenatal care, while 41.6% showed poor ability. Among total respondents, 46.32% showed positive utilization of ANC services, while 53.68% showed poor utilization. A statistically significant difference has been found between respondents' income and ANC knowledge (p=0.02). A statistically significant difference was found between respondents' education and ANC knowledge (p=0.01). Among respondents who have their first pregnancy, 45(72.58%) have good ANC service utilization (p=0.002). Among respondents who were satisfied with the ANC services, 81(89.01%) were utilizing early ANC, whereas 10 (10.98%) were utilizing late ANC services (p=0.01). Conclusion: Overall findings of this research have shown that respondents' knowledge and utilization of ANC were not satisfactory. For more improvement, there is a need to educate women and provide them with adequate facilities to utilize maternal and neonatal care services.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong> </strong></p> Ejaz ul Haq Dr. Ayesha Babar Kawish Mehwish Fayaz Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Natural Medicine and Health Sciences http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 1 2 Awareness to Handle Research and Healthcare Waste (RHCW) in teaching and research institutes; a comprehensive review https://journals.iub.edu.pk/index.php/ijnms/article/view/758 <p>Environmental pollution has become the major challenge not only for developing countries but also for developed ones Worldwide. The major goal of this comprehensive review is to compile the reference data regarding the different types of waste generated in teaching, research, and healthcare institutes and specific strategy to manage such wastes. In addition to the pharmaceutical, leather, chemicals, food, and paper industries, teaching, research, and healthcare institutions are also significant sources of different types of Non-hazardous as well as hazardous wastes. Therefore, a simple and implementable guideline for cleaning and waste disposal services in such institutions requires strict adherence to applicable policies and procedures. Research and healthcare waste (RHCW) management is a joint effort among Research Laboratory Personnel, Healthcare facilitators, Building Services Personnel, and Local Environmental Health and Safety Personnel. As Pakistan is among the developing countries situated in South Asia, most of the institutes, including teaching, research, and healthcare, try to follow the WHO guidance or manage hazardous and non-hazardous wastes with self-planned strategies. Although most of the local Governing bodies and Institutional bodies are trying to handle the wastes at their levels by following different protocols, introducing a protocol at the National level is the need of the current era to fight against environmental pollutants.</p> <p> </p> Naveed Munir Muhammad Naveed Afzal Zahed Mahmood Umar Bacha Syeda Saira Iqbal Qurat ul Ain Awais Imdad Khan Amber Yaseen Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Natural Medicine and Health Sciences http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 1 2 Current options and therapeutic strategies for the management of cancer https://journals.iub.edu.pk/index.php/ijnms/article/view/832 <p>The disease is thought to be a significant general medical problem in created and emerging nations. The high mortality related to particular kinds of illness (Lung, prostate, stomach, and colorectal) legitimizes a developing interest in the recognizable proof of new pharmacological specialists effective in malignant growth counteraction and treatment. A few strategies are accessible to treat disease like a medical procedure, chemotherapy, radiation treatment, immunotherapy, and monoclonal immunizer treatment. The decision of treatment relies on the area of the growth, grade of the cancer, the phase of the infection, and the overall condition of the patient. Plants are considered as the great wellspring of profoundly compelling traditional specialists for the therapy of many sorts of malignant growth. The restorative plants' phytochemical investigation has generally added to the disclosure of new anticancer medications. This article has been made to audit a few restorative plants utilized for the therapy of malignant growth and gives information about anticancer therapeutic plants, which are utilized by individuals in all around the Asian nations.</p> <p> </p> Abdul Hayee Hà Thị Việt Mỹ Muhammad Rahil Aslam Aamir Sharif Đặng Sơn Tùng Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Natural Medicine and Health Sciences http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 1 2 Plant-Derived bioactive compounds as Skin Photo protection Agents https://journals.iub.edu.pk/index.php/ijnms/article/view/866 <p>Exposure to the sun is unavoidable in daily life. Ultra-violet radiations are the major component of sunlight and play a significant role in damaging the skin. They induce many skin problems like erythema, sun burn, rashes as well as skin cancer. Although the protective layer of earth, the ozone layer, filters most of the damaging radiations from the sun, with the dramatic rise in pollution, global warming is reaching at its peak point. These pollutants deteriorate the protective ozone layer of earth, resulting in its thinning which in turn allows the passage of hazardous solar radiations to the earth. These radiations act as the most potent irritant for the skin cells. In order to avoid these hazardous effects of UV radiations, there is an emerging demand for the use of photo protectants. Manufacturers of various cosmetic and skin care companies are focusing on natural compounds to deal with skin problems caused by UV radiations. It includes phytochemicals and bioactive compounds from the plants. As these are natural and economic, they don’t leave any damaging effect on the body and are the best photo protectants against UV radiations. There are several plants with their chemical compounds derived and studied for their photoprotective role. Most of them are proven best for cosmetic remedies. This review will provide a look over the plant-derived bioactive compounds of Southeast Asia with their photo protectant effect.</p> Shabbir Ahmad Asad Shabbir Nasir Tareen Shakeel Ahmad Muhammad Akram Chohan Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Natural Medicine and Health Sciences http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 1 2 Evaluation of Phenolic contents, Cytotoxic, and Antioxidant potential of Euphorbia nerrifolia https://journals.iub.edu.pk/index.php/ijnms/article/view/867 <p>Objective: The researchers wanted to see how cytotoxic, phenolic, and antioxidant potential of <em>Euphorbia nerrifolia</em> were. Methods: The organic extracts were obtained by extraction of whole dried plant with n-hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol. Phyto-chemical screening was carried out using standard methods. Total phenolics contents were measured by using the Folin–CioEcalteu reagent method. Cytotoxic action was evaluated by brine shrimp lethality bioassay. DPPH radical assay was employed for antioxidant activity. Results: Phytochemical investigations confirmed the presence of anthraquinones, saponins, cardiac glycosides and flavonoids. Highest phenolic content (276.41 ± 64 mg GAE/g dry extract wt) was observed in methanol extract. Significant antioxidant potential was exhibited by methanol extract by means of 78.8% inhibition with IC<sub>50 </sub>value of 35.71µg/ml). In brine shrimp lethality bioassay, methanol extract demonstrated prominent cytotoxicity at highest level of dose with LD<sub>50</sub> 471.05. Conclusion: The study concluded that <em>Euphorbia nerrifolia</em> contains significant antioxidant and cytotoxic potential. Further investigation is suggested for the isolation of secondary metabolites responsible for reported biological activities.</p> <p> </p> Khuram Ashfaq Muhammad Anees-ur-Rehman Muhammad Tariq Nasir Ali Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Natural Medicine and Health Sciences http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 1 2 Medicinal and pharmacological potential of Guava leaf powder, A Review https://journals.iub.edu.pk/index.php/ijnms/article/view/834 <p>Guava (Psidium guajava) encompasses a broad range of nutritional and therapeutic potential. Depending on the species, the fruits are 4-12 cm long and have a round or oval form. It belongs to the Myrtaceous family and is mostly cultivated in tropical and subtropical climates of the subcontinent including Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh. The most therapeutic value could be traced in the pink form of guava. The phytochemicals “quercetin, avicularin, apigenin, guaijaverin, kaempferol, hyperin, myricetin, gallic acid, catechin, epicatechin, chlorogenic acid, epigallocatechin gallate, and caffeic acid” have been investigated in the guava plant leaves for its therapeutic properties. Antidiarrheal, antihypertensive, antilipidemic, anticancer, and other health-promoting benefits are associated with both the fruits and the leaves of guava. The nutritional and phytochemical profiles of guava leaves are presented in detail in the current review. Many bioactivities of guava leaf extracts are also critically investigated. Guava leaves might be employed as a component in nutraceuticals and medications due to their phytochemical profile. To prove the efficacy of the guava leaf extracts, further extensive clinical trials are needed.</p> Muhammad Anees Ur Rehman Idrees Khan Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Natural Medicine and Health Sciences http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 1 2 Role of Convalescent plasma on the immune system and potential therapy for COVID19 https://journals.iub.edu.pk/index.php/ijnms/article/view/726 <p>New health trouble terrifies the world by spreading 2019 unique coronavirus or severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2. Coronavirus is an RNA enveloped virus that is present in humans and wildlife. The spread of the illness occurred in many countries. That's why it is called a pandemic. This virus is transmitted by coughs sneezing, and its incubation period is 3-14 days. The symptoms accompanying this disease are mild fever, dry cough, sore throat, shortness of breath, tiredness, and muscle pain. The disease is mild in most people, then it progresses to pneumonia and ultimately results in severe pneumonia or multi-organ dysfunction. The recent pandemic has shown that Coronavirus-2 is involved in the mechanism to evade the typical human responses. It has been observed that the innate immune system activates and can reduce the chances of risk regarding lung inflammation. Currently, the imposed cause and the development process of abnormal conditions due to the coronavirus are ill-defined. There are no therapeutic therapies for Corona Virus Disease 2019's patient; only symptomatic treatment is given as supportive therapy. Convalescent plasma therapy has acted as passive immunization globally for this critical situation in the presence of a coronavirus pandemic. FDA has conceded the approval for applying the convalescent plasma to severe patients of COVID19. CP therapy has some adverse effects like fever, itching, or skin rash. This review summarises the CP as the potential therapy for COVID19 and its role on the patient immune system.&nbsp;</p> Bushra Tahreem Maria Oubaid Tanveer Ali Mubbasher Munir Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Natural Medicine and Health Sciences http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 1 2 Assessment of risk factors associated with diabetes https://journals.iub.edu.pk/index.php/ijnms/article/view/836 <p><strong>Abstract:</strong></p> <p>Objective: Purpose of the study was to assess to risk factors of diabetes type II and complications in diabetic patient of tertiary care hospital. Methods/Design: Cross sectional study conducted to evaluate the risk factors associated with diabetes Mellitus. Setting: Tertiary hospitals of Islamabad and Azad Kashmir was selected for the current study. Participants: 50 patients assessed without any gender discrimination age between 35 to 85 years for risk factors and complications. Intervention: Data was collected from patients that were bed ridden admitted in hospitals. A total of 50 patients were included in this study with age limit more than 35 years and without any discrimination of gender. Primary Outcome Measures: In tertiary care hospitalized patient’s obesity, inactivity and family history were the major risk factor for diabetes mellitus type 2 and we calculated the obesity, inactivity and family history percentage in diabetic patients 63%, 49% and 67% respectively. Results: Percentage of risk factors calculated the obesity, inactivity and family history in diabetic patients 63%, 49% and 67% respectively. Macro vascular complications in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 were stroke 3%, angina 8%, hypertension and cognitive impairment have highest percentages i.e., 78%. 46% patients were suffering from ulceration; gangrene and amputation have percentages 19% and 3% respectively. Patients with microvascular complications of diabetic nephropathy were assessed for their albuminuria 25%, edema 32% and incontinence 28%. Conclusion: These complications can be avoided if patients of DM type 2 adopt a healthy lifestyle, do exercise and monitor their blood glucose levels regularly. Patients should also control their blood pressure to avoid damage to their microvasculature.</p> Zeeshan Sumer Ejaz Rafique Muhammad Soaib Said Iqra Saleem Ahsan Zahid Uzma Bashir Misbah Firdous Asif Mehmood Hashmi Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Natural Medicine and Health Sciences http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 1 2 Role of aldose reductase in Ischemic Heart Disease in subjects visiting Punjab Institute of Cardiology, Lahore https://journals.iub.edu.pk/index.php/ijnms/article/view/833 <p>Background: Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is one of the major cardiovascular diseases due to insufficient blood supply to cardiac cells. Aldose reductase (AR) is a multifunctional enzyme that converts glucose into sorbitol in the polyol pathway. The main objective of this study is to determine the role of aldose reductase in ischemic heart disease subjects in our local population and its relationship with lipid profile. Methods: This cross-sectional study sampled 100 subjects from Jelani Block of PIC Lahore after ethical approval, categorized into two groups depending on disease condition, i.e., the IHD (n=50) group and Control Group (n=50), including healthy subjects. They were taken together with disease history, age, smoking, hypertension, and physical activity examined as inclusion criteria. The level of biochemical parameters was evaluated by using a chemistry analyzer. Hormonal (AR) and cardiac marker (CK-MB) assessments were performed on the ELISA system using commercially available ELSA diagnostic kits. Results: The results revealed that levels of aldose reeducate and CK-MB was comparatively more significant in the IHD group than control, but total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) showed no significant difference between the control and IHD group. Conclusion: A statistically non-significant relationship was observed between aldose reductase and CK-MB and lipid profile in the IHD patients, indicating the role of aldose reductase in IHD subjects because it increases oxidative stress in cardiac cells.</p> Saima Sharif Amina Saleem Muhammad Khawar Abbas Laiba Saeed Warda Mustafa Kashif Prince Feng Lan Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Natural Medicine and Health Sciences http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 1 2 Antibacterial activity of some medicinal plants against human pathogens https://journals.iub.edu.pk/index.php/ijnms/article/view/855 <p>Objective: To assess the antibacterial goods of unrefined solvent methanol concentrate of <em>Calligonum polygonoids, Asphadalous tenuiflous, Pulicaria crispa</em>, and <em>Fagonia cretica </em>against a few human microorganisms. Method: Unrefined methanol concentrates of, <em>Calligonum polygonoids, Asphadalous tenuiflous, Pulicaria crispa </em>and <em>Fagonia cretica</em> at grouping of 500, 250 and 100µg/ml were considered in contrast to Gram-positive <em>Staphylococcus carnosus</em> and Gram -ve <em>K. pneumoniae, S. typhi, E. coli</em> and <em>P. aurogenosa</em> by utilizing circle dissemination strategy. Ciprofloxacin (5µg/ml) was utilized as a kind of perspective medication. Results: The concentrates of all plants showed expansive range antibacterial exercises in a portion subordinate way. The most noteworthy inhibitory area was seen from methanol concentrate of <em>Fagonia cretica</em> against <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em> (19mm), <em>S. carnosus</em> (19mm), <em>E. coli</em> (18.67mm) and <em>S. typhi</em> (14mm); <em>Calligonum polygonoids</em> showed against <em>E. coli</em> (15mm), <em>S. typhi</em> (16milimeter) and <em>P. aurogenosa</em> (16milimeter); <em>Pulicaria crispa </em>displayed against <em>K. pneumoniae</em> (19milimeter), <em>E. coli</em> (17milimeter) <em>S. typhi</em> (18milimeter), <em>S. carnosus</em> (19milileter) and <em>P. aurogenosa</em> (16milimeter) while <em>Asphadalous tenuiflous </em>displayed against <em>K. pneumoniae</em> (15milimeter), and <em>E. coli</em> (15milimeter) <em>S. typhi</em> (14.33milimeter), <em>S. carnosus</em> (13.67milimeter) and <em>P. aurogenosa</em> (13.67milimeter). Conclusion: These restorative plants have strong antibacterial action and might be the new hotspot for novel antibacterial compound disclosure for the treatment of medications safe human microorganisms.</p> Hafiz Muhammad Arsalan Hassan Javed Neelam Farheen Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Natural Medicine and Health Sciences http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 1 2