Journal of Banking and Social Equity (JBSE) <p>Journal of Banking and Social Equity (JBSE) is a peer-reviewed refereed journal aiming at engaging academicians as well as practitioners. All papers will be subject to a minimum of double-blind refereeing. The JBSE will publish theoretical and empirical research papers spanning all the major research fields in Islamic finance, banking and social equity, semiannually. The journal will welcome robust evidence-based empirical studies and results-focused case studies that share research in product development and illuminate best practices. The JBSE aims to give an interdisciplinary view of Islamic and conventional practices concerning banking, finance, business management and social equity. The journal is published by the Centre of Excellence in Islamic Finance and Social Equity, Department of Islamic and Conventional Banking, Institute of Business Management and Administrative sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan and is printed by the University Printing Press, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan.</p> The University Printing Press, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan. en-US Journal of Banking and Social Equity (JBSE) 2959-166X Handling the Mishandling: The Role of Entrepreneurial Training in Women's Social Equity <p>This research investigates the complex correlation between women's entrepreneurial education and social equity, specifically emphasising the moderating influence of microfinance credits, savings, and loans within the Pakistani setting. This study utilises primary data obtained from women entrepreneurs and microfinance banking clients through a Likert scale questionnaire. The research performs correlation and regression analyses to derive statistically significant findings. The results demonstrate a strong and positive correlation between women's participation in entrepreneurial training programs and the promotion of social equity. This confirms the significant impact of education and skill development on empowering women in the field of entrepreneurship. Significantly, this study sheds light on the crucial moderating function of microfinance services. This finding illustrates that the provision of microfinance credit, savings, and loans plays a crucial role in enhancing the favourable effects of entrepreneurship training on women's social equality results. This statement highlights the crucial role played by microfinance institutions in promoting financial inclusion and empowering women economically. This research contributes to the theoretical understanding of the interplay among entrepreneurship, microfinance, and gender studies. The practical consequences of this research are relevant to policymakers, microfinance institutions, and groups focused on women's empowerment. The findings provide valuable insights that may be utilised to improve training programs and financial services.</p> Muhammad Murad Muhammad Madni Copyright (c) 2023 Muhammad Murad, Muhammad Madni 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 2 2 1 12 The Impact on Financial Inclusion in The Era of Covid-19: A Case of Developing Countries <p>The world still has a large unbanked population, which regularly contributes to unbanked transactions. The problem is a lack of trust, financial insecurity, and knowledge about the products and services of financial inclusion. Financial inclusion provides timely and cost-effective access to financial products and services like loans and credit facilities to low-income vulnerable groups. COVID-19 has badly affected all the world's economies and caused them to suffer a great recession, which makes it essential to include the unbanked population in the net of financial inclusion. This study aims to measure the impact of COVID-19 on financial inclusion in developing countries by taking data from 2017 to 2020. The results concluded that increased fintech technology, such as mobile money services during COVID-19, increased financial technology. People started using mobile accounts during COVID-19 to avoid the risk of getting infected by this novel virus.</p> Ammar Nawaz Kanwal Iqbal Khan Quratulain Akhtar Copyright (c) 2023 Ammar Nawaz, Kanwal Iqbal Khan, Quratulain Akhtar 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 2 2 13 27 At the Crossroads: Exploring the Relationship Between Financial Decisions and Firm Performance of Distressed Firms in the Pakistan Stock Exchange <p>The primary aim of this study is to assess the influence of financial decisions on the financial performance of distressed firms in Pakistan. Specifically, the research delves into three pivotal financial decisions: dividends, capital structure, and investment choices. Utilising balance sheet analyses published by the State Bank of Pakistan, relevant data were gathered for companies listed on the Pakistan Stock Exchange. The sample for this investigation comprises 185 non-financial firms listed on the PSX over the past eight years (2010-2017), utilising panel data. Regression analysis using the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) technique was employed to examine the relationships. The results reveal that the dividend policy significantly and positively impacts return on assets, while its effect on return on equity is found to be insignificant. The study also explores the impact of capital structure on the performance of distressed firms, indicating an insignificant and negative effect on return on assets. Additionally, a highly significant positive relationship is identified between taxes and both returns on assets. Concerning return on equity, a negative and highly significant association is observed between long-term debt and ROE. Furthermore, the investigation examines the effects of over- and under-investment on firm performance in distressed firms. The findings suggest that over-investment has a significant and positive impact on return, while under-investment demonstrates a significant and positive effect on return on assets and an insignificant positive impact on return on equity. This study contributes to the understanding of the impact of over and under-investment on firm performance, an aspect not previously explored in distressed firms.</p> Shahid Hussain Saad ur Rehman Mohsin Ali Copyright (c) 2023 Shahid Hussain, Saad ur Rehman 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 2 2 28 43 10.52461/jbse.v2i2.2442 Antecedents of Sustainable Financial Performance: Evidence from the Banking Sector of Pakistan <p>This research aims to investigate the determinants of the sustainable financial performance of banks listed on the Pakistan Stock Exchange. The data for the present research is collected from 30 banks over the period of 2012-2022. The panel cross-linear regression was employed to analyse the data by employing Stata. Various bank-specific factors were found to be positive and statistically significant antecedents of banks’ financial performance. However, bank size, business model and financial structure have negative and insignificant impacts on the bank’s financial performance. In a similar vein, macro-economic factors have a significant negative and insignificant positive impact on banks’ financial performance. Concerning social factors, only hospital funding has an adverse effect on financial performance. Last but not least, environmental financing is negatively and insignificantly linked with banks’ financial performance. Accordingly, this research concludes that managers and policymakers of commercial banks must keep their social and environmental investments in check to attain sustainable financial performance.</p> Muhammad Kashif Majeed Maria Saleem M Khyzer Bin Dost Faisal Mahmood Nargis Batool Copyright (c) 2023 Muhammad Kashif Majeed, Maria Saleem, M Khyzer Bin Dost, Faisal Mahmood, Nargis Batool 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 2 2 44 62 The Nexus of High-Performance Work Systems and Employee Perceived Innovation Performance: Unveiling the Mediating Role of Human Capital – A Study of Banking Industry in Compliance with SDGs (2023) <p>This research endeavors to investigate into the complex dynamics within the banking industry, specifically focusing on the interrelationships among Human Capital Management (HCM), High-Performance Work Systems (HPWS), and the Perceived Innovative Performance of Employees (PIPE), in compliance with Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This study employs a quantitative research approach to investigate the complex relationships between HPWS, HCM, and PIPE within the banking industry. The population under scrutiny were individuals within the banking sector in Karachi, Pakistan; a sample size of 398 respondents ensures a robust and representative dataset. The study leverages advanced statistical techniques, particularly Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). Findings show the complex relationship between HPWS, HCM, and PIPE in the banking industry. It is observed that the mediation effect of HCM influences the relationship between HPWS and organisational effectiveness. Comprehensive statistical analysis shows that HCM mediates between HPWS and performance.</p> Shahzad Ahmed Muhammad Usman Aleem Tarique Mahmood Farhan Mahboob Copyright (c) 2023 Shahzad Ahmed, Muhammad Usman Aleem, Tarique Mahmood, Farhan Mahboob 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 2 2 63 76 Role of Financial Inclusion in Promoting Financial Performance: Evidence from Microfinance Institutions of Pakistan <p>This study examines the role of financial inclusion (FI) to encourage financial performance (FP) of microfinance institutions (MIs). This study investigates the role of FI considering number of branches and average loan balance per borrower as major determinants to promote FP of MIs. This study used quantile panel data regression analysis to analyze the collected data from the sample of 17 MIs of Pakistan during 2014 to 2019. The findings of this research analysis suggest that number of branches as determinants of FI have significant and positive influence on FP of the MIs. As the number of branches of MIs increases, MIs tend to have a higher level of FP. On the other hand, this study finds a significant but negative relationship between average loan balances per borrower to GNI per capita (ALB) with the FP of MIs. It is normal practice of MIs that they target a few high-profile clients to attain their financial sustainability as low income and poor customers are unable to pay the market competitive price against financial services and products. Continuous increasing focus on profitability results into having very few numbers of poor and low-income customers in Pakistan. The findings of this study are helpful for the policy makers and regulators to design and implement the policies related to FI along with financial growth of MIs.</p> Zunera Khalid Muhammad Kashif Ali Farah Yasser Copyright (c) 2023 Zunera Khalid, Muhammad Kashif Ali, Farah Yasser 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 2 2 77 90