Political Horizons https://journals.iub.edu.pk/index.php/ph <p>Political Horizons is a biannual peer reviewed journal owned and published by the Department of Political Science, Faculty of Social Science, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur.</p> <p><strong>Publisher:</strong> The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan.<br /><strong>ISSN (P): </strong><strong><br />ISSN (E): </strong><br /><strong>Frequency</strong>: Bi-annual<br /><strong>Access:</strong> Open<br /><strong>Publication Charges</strong>: Free<br /><strong>Peer Review Process:</strong> Double-blind</p> The Islamia University of Bahawalpur en-US Political Horizons Effectiveness of Xi’s Anti-corruption Campaign in China: A Preliminary Study https://journals.iub.edu.pk/index.php/ph/article/view/973 <p>Corruption is considered a phenomenon which can be seen in every country and region. It is a curse and a cancer for the economy of the country. It is unethical and unacceptable behavior and the use of power for individual and personal gain. The objectives of this research are to analyze the level of corruption in China and the efforts to curb the corruption. The anti-corruption campaign of China is popular among the scholars and analysts not only in China but also internationally. Xi Jinping came into power in 2012 and started crackdowns upon tigers and flies. Xi gives importance to the party discipline and behavior of party cadres. The Communist Party of China set strict rules and regulations to curb the corruption. This research is based on qualitative methods and data was collected by secondary sources which provide better understanding of Chinese anti-corruption efforts. This research provides the history and present situation of corruption in China.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>China, Corruption, Anti-corruption Policies, Marxist-Leninist ideology, Party Discipline.</em></p> Mehwish Muzaffar Copyright (c) 2023 Political Horizons https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 1 1 1 8 Policy on SMEs in Pakistan: Relationship between Entrepreneurial Orientation, Firm Performance and Ownership Structure https://journals.iub.edu.pk/index.php/ph/article/view/1144 <p>To strengthen growth of SMEs in Pakistan, it is important for the policy makers to understand some significant related variables. For instance, Entrepreneurial Orientation (EO) is one such variable which can affect the performance of any business substantially; however, it is debatable if some of its dimensions do not affect the firm performance. This research investigates the relationship among the EO dimensions, firms’ performance and ownership structure. In this study, the collection of data was done by using a self-administered questionnaire survey using a 5-point Likert scale and Statistical Package for social sciences (SPSS) version 24. The findings revealed that EO has a statistically significant effect on firms’ performance and when checked individually for each dimension of the EO, it was clear that results for innovation were statistically insignificant, because innovation needs certain time and specific environmental conditions to yield significant results, whereas results for risk-seeking, proactive approach, autonomy, aggressive attitude, and competitive spirit were statistically significant and positively linked with the firms’ performance. The findings of this research reveal that ownership structure does play a significant moderating role on the relationship between performance of the firm and EO dimensions (Innovativeness, Proactiveness and competitive Energy) while Ownership structure doesn't play any significant moderating role between firm performance and few other EO dimensions (risk-attitude, autonomy and aggressiveness).</p> <p><strong>Keywords: &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </strong>Public Policy, Entrepreneurial Orientation, Firm Performance, Ownership Structure, Small &amp; Medium Enterprises (SMEs), Pakistan</p> Adeel Akhtar Muhammad Shaukat Malik Fahad Abbas Khan Copyright (c) 2023 Political Horizons https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 1 1 9 19 Critical Analysis of the Parliamentary Democracy: Challenges and Strengths in Pakistan (2002-2018) https://journals.iub.edu.pk/index.php/ph/article/view/974 <p>Democracy is the political system that is most universally accepted as being the best, most practicable and just in the modern world. First and foremost democracy requires a parliament, which is a powerful institution in its own right, since it represents the people. The Parliament is the supreme legislative body in the country. Nations that have instituted an effective democratic system and respect their parliament are running successfully all over the world. The three pillars of democracy are a parliament, an independent judiciary and efficient executive and these three institutions should function within their purview and according to the constitution. Free and fair elections, political liberty and freedom of the press are also necessary adjuncts to the system. Indeed, unrigged elections are the very basis for ensuring proper representation of the people. Democracy secures the welfare of people in the legislative process. Pakistan espoused the system of democracy in the country. The Pakistani public and its politicians have played an important role in the process of democratization. In the constitutional history of Pakistan many military and civilian dictators have disrupted the evolution of the state’s democratic and parliamentary culture. In fact the mainstream has always welcomed military rule and military always interrupts the progress of the civilian government. This paper will throw light on a comprehensive performance review of Pakistan parliament to strengthen the democracy from 2002-2018. This article discussed the role of democracy and analyzes those factors of weaknesses that affected the true spirit of democracy in Pakistan and also give some key suggestions to strengthen parliamentary democracy in Pakistan. Data related to this study collected by secondary sources such as books, journals, reports, and articles. This research work is analytical as well as descriptive in nature.</p> Sidra Akram Muhammad Azhar Copyright (c) 2023 Political Horizons https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 1 1 20 34 Urbanization: A Tool in Bringing Social and Political Change in Pakistan https://journals.iub.edu.pk/index.php/ph/article/view/1146 <p>Urbanization is an important phenomenon which is happening all over the world. Never ever before in history, there were such high levels of urban population. Pakistan is no exception, and it is the most urbanized country in South Asia. Studies related to urbanization in Pakistan is limited to understanding demographic and population changes, rural-urban migration, and economic and environmental implications. This research paper will focus on the role of urbanization in bringing social change in Pakistan in the last few years. A descriptive and analytical approach is applied in contemplating the impact of urbanization on changing social structures, roles, values, and processes as well as on political culture, educated youth, social, ethnic and group conflict and prospects for national integration. The study of such impacts is essential because Pakistan has a huge young population, and it is witnessing high rates of population growth and urbanization which is important in setting the nation’s economic and political trajectory as well as changing the national social outlook in a few years.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Urbanization; Social Change; Political Culture; Conflict; Integration.</p> Saweel Hameed Rathore Fauzia Ghani Copyright (c) 2023 Political Horizons https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 1 1 35 43 Indo-USA 123 Deal and Nuclear Cooperation Agreement Feature and Reasons: Perspective of China and Pakistan https://journals.iub.edu.pk/index.php/ph/article/view/1152 <p>India and United States have led to a strategic partnership due to mutual interests in global politics such as promoting democracy and fighting terrorism. After that, they extend their collaboration across the economy, technology and atomic energy. After 1998 nuclear tests United States imposed sanctions on both India and Pakistan and stopped any kind of aid and assistance to them. But after the incident of September, 11 USA changed her strategies toward both countries and started Global war on terrorism (GWOT). In the South Asian security environment, the United States of America (USA) and India have a strong bond of strategic partnership due to the power struggle between the regional powers. India and USA started nuclear deal on 2005 which was completed on 2006. Behind this deal, both states increase their influence in this region. After this USA took steps toward India and signed the deal with it because in this region USA has only one watch dog in the shape of India. China is emerging as global power that is threatening situation for United States of America. In response of Indo-USA nuclear deal, arms race between India and Pakistan added risk of accidental use of nuclear technology due to unsophisticated command and control system.</p> <p><strong>Key Words:</strong> Minimum deterrence, China, GWOT, Nuclear deal, section 123.</p> Khadija Murtaza Muhammad Azhar Zainab Murtaza Copyright (c) 2023 Political Horizons https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 1 1 44 52