Political Horizons https://journals.iub.edu.pk/index.php/ph <p>Political Horizons is a biannual peer reviewed journal owned and published by the Department of Political Science, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur.</p> <p><strong>Publisher:</strong> Department of Political Science, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan.<br /><strong>ISSN (P): 3006-2446</strong><strong><br />ISSN (O): 3006-2454 </strong><br /><strong>Frequency</strong>: Bi-annual<br /><strong>Access:</strong> Open<br /><strong>Publication Charges</strong>: Free<br /><strong>Peer Review Process:</strong> Double-blind</p> en-US political.horizons@iub.edu.pk (Prof. Dr. Syed Mussawar Hussain Bukhari (Chief Editor)) shakil.akhtar@iub.edu.pk (Dr. Shakil Akhtar (Managing Editor)) Sun, 30 Jun 2024 08:13:11 +0000 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Pursuing National Integration https://journals.iub.edu.pk/index.php/ph/article/view/1145 <p>Federalism provides equal opportunities to the sub-regional groups in a state having diverse socio-political and ethnic identities. The process of national integration is more effective under federalism than any other form of governance. It isfundamentally considered <em>‘unity in diversit</em>y’ model for the states having federal form of governance structure. After 18th amendment, federalism in Pakistan has found new avenues to re-integrate the provincial identities, cultural groupings, political sub-regionalism and administrative hierarchy. This process focused on the transformation of the process of democracy, good governance, institutionalism and federalism. This research presents a model of national integration which has been emerged in the aftermath of 18th amendment. State institutionalization, democratization and inclusive federalism are the three important characteristics of this model. The main argument of this paper is, “a consistent and stable decentralization process in the present form of federalism can enhance the process of national integration in Pakistan”. Furthermore, this study concludes that, constitutional supremacy and the institutional working is very important for developing national integration process in Pakistan.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>National Integration, Pakistan, 18th Amendment, Federalism, State Institutionalization</p> Dr. Muhammad Faisal, Dr. Muhammad Aslam Faiz, Muhammad Saleem Copyright (c) 2024 Muhammad Faisal, Muhammad Aslam Faiz, Muhammad Saleem https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.iub.edu.pk/index.php/ph/article/view/1145 Sat, 29 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Demand of the Saraiki Province and the Role of Political Parties https://journals.iub.edu.pk/index.php/ph/article/view/2872 <p>The sense of deprivation often leads towards ethnic conflicts in state. The lack of social, political and economic opportunities create tendencies of demanding new units within the state. The demand of the Saraiki province is also an example of the demand of the deprived people. The Saraiki province has been a long wish of local people of Saraiki belt. Almost all the past governments did not heed proper attention and any mechanism could not be emerged for the Saraiki province. The Saraiki belt (Multan, Bahawalpur, Dera Ghazi Khan), despite the promise of equal rights by giving new province to them, the people of Saraiki belt were not facilitated even with the basic rights of education and health. The South Punjab may be regarded as periphery of the core for the federal and the provincial governments of Pakistan where both the governments are manipulating its resources and manpower. The south Punjab, in turn, gets further decrease in development and funds as Punjab is a large province which may not address the issues of a common man at its doorstep. Moreover, display of poor governance is seen everywhere as the required funds and power are not given to the Saraiki belt. Pakistan people’s Party remained in power from 2018 and Pakistan Muslim League N steered the government from 2013to 2018. Despite the promises and claims, both the parties could not even brought the Saraiki province issue to limelight. The objective of the paper is to find out the working of the political parties for the new Saraiki province. Applying descriptive and analytical method, this comparative study focused on the policies, performance and role of two major political parties, PPP and PMLN, regarding the formation of the Saraiki province in South Punjab.</p> <p> <strong>Key words:</strong> Saraikee province, Role of Political Parties, PPP, PMLN, South Punjab</p> Rana Pervaiz Iqbal Copyright (c) 2024 Rana Pervaiz Iqbal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.iub.edu.pk/index.php/ph/article/view/2872 Sat, 29 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Exploring the Ethical Crossroads https://journals.iub.edu.pk/index.php/ph/article/view/2873 <p>This article deals with the connection between the ethics, diplomacy and American exceptionalism in term of United State foreign affairs. In addition, the study inspects the chronological origins of American exceptionalism and its impact on the United State foreign policy. Also, provide a focus on historical event, policymaking and their moral and ethical implications. Furthermore, it provides analysis of challenges and dilemmas faced by United State. It aims to explore the role of American exceptionalism in transforming the United State actions on global stage and its impact on international relation with different examples. This article delves into a broad and clear understanding with how American exceptionalism affects decision-making process in foreign concerns. Additionally, the analysis also provides that how implications of different policies evolve the world order. The article concludes the tension between the national interest and other ethical principles. The goal is to give deep understanding between ethics and exceptionalism in United State foreign affairs.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>American Exceptionalism, Foreign Affairs, United States, Policymakers, Dilemmas, Ethical, Challenges</p> Usama bin Nawaz Khan, Mehnaz Bibi, Amina Munawar, Dr. Muhammad Akram Zaheer Copyright (c) 2024 Usama bin Nawaz Khan, Mehnaz Bibi, Amina Munawar, Dr. Muhammad Akram Zaheer https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.iub.edu.pk/index.php/ph/article/view/2873 Sat, 29 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Food Security and Prospects of Water Resources https://journals.iub.edu.pk/index.php/ph/article/view/2874 <p>Agriculture sector plays pivotal role in boosting Pakistan’s economy. It represents around 45% of employment, contributes 21.4% to Gross Domestic Product and provides food to over 240 million people of the country. Due to rapid population growth, it is estimated that it will become around 403 million by 2050 (United Nations Population Fund Report, 2023). It will be challenging for the agriculture sector to meet the forthcoming food demand because the accessible resources to provide safeguards against food insecurity in future are conditional with the availability of fresh water which is the backbone of agriculture sector. The gap between the availability and demand of fresh water is becoming wider due to certain circumstances and it could be accomplished by constructing new dams. Within this debate, the project of Kalabagh dam is analyzed as the most feasible option while comparing it under four dimensions: availability, applicability, acceptability, and affordability. The disagreements among the domestic political groups are main impediments on the way to the construction of Kalabagh dam. Domestic political snags might be addressed through dialogues and compromises. The debate for engendering national consensus on Kalabagh dam and to comprehend the domestic political discrepancies, is evaluated within the prism of the theory of state-building.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Food Security, Kalabagh Dam, Domestic Politics, Water Security, Theory of State-building</p> Dr. Muhammad Shafiq ur Rahman Copyright (c) 2024 Dr. Muhammad Shafiq ur Rahman https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.iub.edu.pk/index.php/ph/article/view/2874 Sat, 29 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Causes of Political Polarization in Pakistan from 1947 to 2024 https://journals.iub.edu.pk/index.php/ph/article/view/2875 <p>Recently, political polarization has been one of the most rampant political processes across the globe. Stable, as well as unstable democracies, have been affected by political polarization. Since its inception, Pakistan has been a politically polarized country. Politicians have further widened the gap based on numerous issues to gain their political goals. Unfortunately, there has been unprecedented political polarization in Pakistan in the last few years. From the political elite to the masses everyone is politically divided. This division has contributed to the culture of hatred, abuse, and intolerance. There are several causes of political polarization including mainstream media, social media, the political elite, and income inequality around the globe. However, in this study, the main causes of political polarization in Pakistan are the media and political elite being discussed.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Political polarization, Political process, Pakistan’s politics, Political elite, Political divisions</p> Rabia Sadiq Copyright (c) 2024 Rabia Sadiq https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.iub.edu.pk/index.php/ph/article/view/2875 Sat, 29 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000