Masculinity Enactment in a Pakistani Culture: Role of Masculine Socialization


  • Sara Imtiaz National Institute of Psychology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islmabad, Pakistan
  • Anila Kamal VC, Rawalpindi Women University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan



Focus group discussions, gendered messages , interviews, masculinity enactment and socialization, thematic analysis


Current study looked into masculine socialization process in order the produce masculinity enactments from men in a Pakistani culture. Specifically gendered messages were focused and a qualitatively analysis was done for the situations in which those gender targeting remarks are received. The study utilized individual interviews and focus group discussions as a data collection tool. Both married and unmarried men and women (N = 35) participated in the study through convenience sampling procedure. Findings indicated that men are seriously charged on any display of femininity/fragility, debased manliness, dubious sex representation, androgyny, subordination to wife, lack of spousal control, disbanded honor, and lack of independent thinking. Moreover, men are pressed hard to regain liberty that has been taken away from them. Importantly, these findings have highlighted that men were protected for their higher social status through these gendered messages. These messages highlighted that systems are implanted within the culture that keep check on gendered behaviors and serve to bring them back on track when they are off the track from what society has devised for them. In other words it can be said that patriarchy is being fostered through these messages. Generating sensitivity about such messages and their impact may prove to be helpful for masses.



How to Cite

Imtiaz, S., & Kamal, A. (2023). Masculinity Enactment in a Pakistani Culture: Role of Masculine Socialization. Pakistan Journal of Applied Psychology (PJAP), 3(1), 266–283.