Examining the Effect of Perceived Stress on Flow State of Female University Athletes: Mediated by Mental Toughness


  • Muhammad Wajid BPP University Waterloo London, United Kingdom
  • Alejandra Ramirez Rodriguez BPP University Waterloo, London, United Kingdom
  • Aroosa Awan Institute of Southern Punjab, Multan, Pakistan
  • Asadullah Malik Department of Psychology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan




perceived stress, flow state, mental toughness, females, athletes, SEM


This study was objectified to examine the effect of perceived stress on flow state among female athletes at university. level through the lens of mental toughness. For the purpose a cross-sectional research design was conducted in which 187 female athletes were recruited from three public sector universities of Punjab purposefully. The sample was justified through a-priori sample size calculator for Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The perceived stress, flow state and mental toughness were measured by Perceived Stress Scale-PSS, Flow Short Scale- FSS and Sports Mental Toughness Questionnaire-SMTQ respectively. Resultantly, the partial least square-structural equation modeling showed greater levels of perceived stress associated with lower levels of flow state and greater levels of sports mental toughness associated with greater levels of flow state in female athletes. Importantly, the results of the mediation analysis showed that mental toughness partially mediated the relationship between perceived stress and flow state among the female university athletes. The study findings shed light on the fact the experiences of flow during physical activities needs to be monitored to reduce the stress perceived by female athletes, whereas this also showed an important finding that female athletes with greater mental toughness does experience better flow during their sports related activities.



How to Cite

Wajid, M., Ramirez Rodriguez , A. ., Awan , A. ., & Malik , A. . (2022). Examining the Effect of Perceived Stress on Flow State of Female University Athletes: Mediated by Mental Toughness. Pakistan Journal of Applied Psychology (PJAP), 2(1), 49–57. https://doi.org/10.52461/pjap.v2i1.912