رواية السيرة الذاتية في الأدبين العربي والأردي: "يا بنات إسكندرية" لإدوار الخراط و(على پور كا ايلى) لممتاز مفتي أنموذجًا
Autobiographical Novel in Arabic & Urdu Literatures: “Ya Banat Alexandria” of Edwar Al-Kharrat, & (Alipur Ka Eele) of Mumtaz Mufti (A case Study)
Keywords:Autobiography, Autobiographical Novel, Autofiction, Arabic Literature, Edwar Al-Kharrat, Egypt.
This research focuses on a type of literary novel in both Arabic and Urdu literature, which is the novel that makes the life of its author a field for storytelling and narration. It is a novel that has its literary imagination, but it carries in its essence the biography of the novelist. The research mentions two examples of autobiographical novels, which are "Ya Banat Iskandariya" by Edwar al-Kharrat and "Ali Pur Ka Eliye" by Mumtaz Mufti. The novel and autobiography follow different paths in terms of literary genre, characteristics, and techniques. The novel relies on imagination in its characters, time, place, and events, while the autobiography is based on truth in its characters, time, place, and the honesty and frankness in narrating the events. Additionally, the autobiography is primarily focused on the life of the author, with the author present within it. The author establishes a pact with the reader to write something that aligns with reality, unlike the novel where the author tends to isolate themselves to a significant extent. This aligns with the theory of the "death of the author," which emphasizes the complete separation between the author and the artistic work. However, despite this distinction, some authors have integrated both literary genres into one framework. This gave rise to the emergence of the genre called "autobiographical novel" or "novel-memoir," in which the novelist incorporates their autobiography into a fictional narrative. They may change the names of the characters or add elements of imagination alongside truth and frankness in other aspects. The author does not necessarily adhere to a pact with the reader to present a depiction that matches their real life. It may not be confirmed or denied, especially if the reader is familiar with the author's life, which may somewhat align with the fictional character presented in the autobiographical novel. Some critics argue that the terms "autobiographical novel" and "novel-memoir" differ. The "autobiographical novel" is crafted by the author in a narrative format without altering its elements, thus preserving the real names, places, and roles of the characters. On the other hand, the "novel-memoir" is a literary artistic novel that incorporates a part of the author's life story or its resemblance, but with changes in the names of the characters, places, and the course of events. It may also include fictional events without explicitly acknowledging them as autobiographical.
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