Divisive and inegalitarian? Economic and social outcomes of public, private and faith-based education in Pakistan
Pakistan follows a diverse educational system consisting of three different tracks (public, private and faith-based Madrasah education) with often conflicting objectives. As national cohesion has remained an elusive goal in Pakistan, it is important to know if there are systematic differences in the way graduates from different educational tracks access available opportunities. Using Pakistan Social and Living Standards Measurement (PSLM) survey data 2013-2014, we find that graduates from three tracks face different occupational choices and economic outcomes after their transition to the labour market, and systematically differ with respect to the inter-generational transmission of educational and occupational opportunities. Additionally, we analysed if graduates from the three educational types differ with respect to their socializing skills. Using ‘sum-score’ approach to estimate the social exclusion, we found that graduates from private and Madrasah educational systems are least and most socially excluded respectively.