Globalization and socio-economic structure: Evidence from selected Asian countries


  • Muhammad Luqman Kashmir Institute of Economics, University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Muzaffarabad
  • Maira Shafi Government Girls Degree College, Abbaspur, Azad Jammu and Kashmir
  • Mirajul Haq International Institute of Islamic Economics, International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan


Globalization, Education, Health, Income Inequality, Size of Government, Labor Force, Urbanization


Considering the fact that globalization shapes socio-economic structure, its effects vary substantially across countries and sectors, depending on the nature of globalization. This study assesses empirically the effects of different types of globalization — economic, social and political— on socio-economic structure. The empirical analyses carried out in case of 17 non-oil producing countries of Asia and Eastern Europe covering the time period 1990-2016. This study employs the system generalized method of moment (GMM) as estimation technique. The estimates indicate that all forms of globalization signify their role in the shaping of socio-economic structure of the sample countries. In simple words, more economic, social, and political tied-up country results in an improving of socio-economic structure. The empirical contribution of the paper lies in to two folds.  First, instead of individual indicator, the paper illustrates the effect of globalization on the complete socio-economic structure. To this end, we developed a composite index of socio-economic structure comprising six different socio-economic indicators.  Second, the paper provides empirical indications that how the complete socio-economic structure of a country is affected by different types of globalization— economic, social and political.




How to Cite

Luqman, M., Shafi, M. ., & Haq , M. . (2022). Globalization and socio-economic structure: Evidence from selected Asian countries. Pakistan Journal of Economic Studies (PJES), 5(1), 1–25. Retrieved from